Construction Industry Affect

Sustainable Development of Land and Agriculture in The Developing Countries

 

 

u       Building increase with population growth. The resource consumption of building is maximum , and construction affect state of environment. Construction use 1/6 water, 1/4 wood, 2/5 materials and energy all over the world, and construction structure affect wide area. It affect watershed, quality of atmosphere and structure of society group[1].

u       A lot of peasant transform into construction. This fact is showing construction market quite large and can increase chance of obtain employment of village population.

 

Table 1. The village labor force employment distribute over in China [2]

 Year         

Farming, Forestry, Animal  Husbandry and Fishery

Industry     

Construction * 

Transportation and Storage         

Wholesale,  Retail Sale and Catering Trades    

Other Non-agricultural Trades 

1978

28455.6

 

 

 

 

 

1980

29808.4

 

 

 

 

 

1985

30351.5

2741.0

1130.1

434.1

462.6

1945.8

1987

30870.0

3297.2

1431.3

562.5

606.9

2232.5

1988

31455.7

3412.8

1525.5

607.3

657.1

2408.3

1989

32440.5

3255.6

1501.8

614.2

652.4

2474.3

1990

33336.4

3228.7

1522.8

635.3

693.2

2593.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1991

34186.3

3267.9

1533.8

655.0

722.8

2726.7

1992

34037.0

3468.2

1658.8

706.3

813.7

3117.6

1993

33258.2

3659.0

1886.8

799.9

948.8

3703.1

1994

32690.3

3849.5

2057.3

908.3

1084.3

4064.5

1995

32334.5

3970.7

2203.6

983.0

1170.4

4379.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1996

32260.4

4018.5

2304.3

1027.6

1261.5

4415.7

1997

32434.9

4031.3

2372.7

1057.8

1381.5

4683.9

* note: except for personnel of construction materials manufacture industry and to fix up a home's building.

 

u       Cultivated land, wetland and vegetation is high-speed reduce, because to increase towns.

Table 2. Decrease in Cultivated Area in China[2]                          (k ha.)

Year

Cultivated Area

Paddy Fields

Dry Fields

Decrease in Cultivated Area the Year

Capital Construction

Village Collective Construction

Peasant Housing Construction

1978

99389.5

25419.7

73969.8

800.9

144.5

 

 

1980

99305.2

25322.2

73983.0

940.8

97.7

 

 

1985

96846.3

25033.0

71813.3

1597.9

134.3

92.3

97.0

1986

96229.9

25055.1

71174.7

1108.3

109.6

58.5

84.5

1987

95888.7

25104.1

70784.5

817.5

104.6

52.0

57.5

1988

95721.8

25077.7

70644.1

644.7

87.8

37.4

37.6

1989

95656.0

25265.8

70390.2

517.5

70.1

34.6

27.4

1990

95672.9

25518.9

70154.1

467.4

66.3

30.3

36.7

1991

95653.6

25706.5

69947.1

488.0

71.9

33.4

20.5

1992

95425.8

25597.2

69828.6

738.7

131.7

64.1

23.9

1993

95101.4

25028.0

70073.4

732.3

161.0

86.0

24.0

1994

94906.7

24762.9

70143.8

708.7

132.6

80.2

33.0

1995

94970.9

24850.5

70120.4

621.1

111.9

84.9

31.6

 

     Table 3. Speed of Towns development and ratio of Construction in GDP in China [2]

year

towns

Construction in GDP %

1954

5400

3.1

1958

3821

5.3

1978

2176

3.8

1997

18316

6.7

 

u       Disturb soil is inevitable to build up towns , and disturbed soil increase erosion hazard 40000 times.[3]

u       Great streets, much sidewalk haven't use Porous paving in towns , therefore storm water infiltration is difficulties. The loss 2000 hundred million Yuan RMB because flood 1998 in China[4].

u       Ground water decrease , river and spring to dry up (such as the Yellow River, the Baotu spring in Jinan city ) and increase flood, because broke natural run-off.

u       The one of important reasons for water resources is deficient north and flood is frequently south in China, that is too much towns and non-sustainable building method[5].

u       To legislate for Architecture for Adapting towns and neighborhoods is sustainable[5].

       For example:

Not only to monitor effluent-quality and discharge,  but also to monitor seasonal discharge of  rain-storm run-off transfer by towns in watershed.

To limit street width, paving materials and building density, so as to protect natural run-off way and filtration function of soil and biocoenose for pollution matter. Etc.

 

 

 

Reference :

[1] David Rodman and Nicolas Lenssen, A Building Revolution: How Ecology and Health Concerns Are Transforming Construction, Worldwatch Paper 124 (Washington, D.C.: March 1996).

[2] China statistics almanac 1998 (State Stat. Bureau)

[3] Harold P. Guy, Sediment Problems in Urban Areas, Circular 601-E (Washington, D. C.: U. S. Geological Survey, 1970).

[4] China Environments State Communique 1998.

[5] US Green Building Council, Sustainable Building Technical Manual -- Green Building Design, construction, and Operations .

 

 

 

Li Xiaoping

Soils and Fertilizers Institute (SFI)

Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS)

12 Zhongguancun South Road, Beijing, 100081

P.R. China

 

Tel: 86-10-68975109, 68918694

Fax: 86-10-68975161

E-mail: xpli@ppi.caas.ac.cn

http://www.agro-labs.ac.cn